Deploying multiple VMs via PowerCLI

Find the latest version here.

Here’s a PowerCLI script I have been playing with for a while that helps with deploying multiple VMs.

Highlights include deploying both Windows and Linux VMs via Customization Specification enabling the setting of hostname, IP address, etc. The script uses help from LucD to deploy using -RunAsync which speeds things up tremendously.

It’s a bit lengthy, with a rudimentary level of logging and error catching but has served me well.

<#
.SYNOPSIS
Deploy Multiple VMs to vCenter
.DESCRIPTION
VMs are deployed asynchronously based on a pre-configured csv file (DeployVM.csv)
.PARAMETER csvfile
Path to DeployVM.csv file with new VM info
.PARAMETER vCenter
vCenter Server FQDN or IP
.PARAMETER auto
Will allow script to run with no review or confirmation
.PARAMETER createcsv
Generates a blank csv file – DeployVM.csv
.EXAMPLE
.\DeployVM.ps1
Runs DeployVM
.EXAMPLE
.\DeployVM.ps1 -vcenter my.vcenter.address
Runs DeployVM specifying vCenter address
.EXAMPLE
.\DeployVM.ps1 -csvfile "E:\Scripts\Deploy\DeployVM.csv" -vcenter my.vcenter.address -auto
Runs DeployVM specifying path to csv file, vCenter address and no confirmation
.EXAMPLE
.\DeployVM.ps1 -createcsv
Creates a new/blank DeployVM.csv file in same directory as script
.NOTES
Author: Shawn Masterson
Created: May 2014
Version: 1.2.1
REQUIREMENTS
PowerShell v3 or greater
vCenter (tested on 5.1/5.5)
PowerCLI 5.5 R2 or later
CSV File – VM info with the following headers
Name, Boot, OSType, Template, CustSpec, Folder, ResourcePool, CPU, RAM, Disk2, Disk3, Disk4, Datastore, DiskStorageFormat, NetType, Network, DHCP, IPAddress, SubnetMask, Gateway, pDNS, sDNS, Notes
Must be named DeployVM.csv
Can be created with -createcsv switch
CSV Field Definitions
Name – Name of new VM
Boot – Determines whether or not to boot the VM – Must be 'true' or 'false'
OSType – Must be 'Windows' or 'Linux'
Template – Name of existing template to clone
CustSpec – Name of existing OS Customiation Spec to use
Folder – Folder in which to place VM in vCenter (optional)
ResourcePool – VM placement – can be a reasource pool, host or a cluster
CPU – Number of vCPU
RAM – Amount of RAM
Disk2 – Size of additional disk to add (GB)(optional)
Disk3 – Size of additional disk to add (GB)(optional)
Disk4 – Size of additional disk to add (GB)(optional)
Datastore – Datastore placement – Can be a datastore or datastore cluster
DiskStorageFormat – Disk storage format – Must be 'Thin', 'Thick' or 'EagerZeroedThick'
NetType – vSwitch type – Must be 'vSS' or 'vDS'
Network – Network/Port Group to connect NIC
DHCP – Use DHCP – Must be 'true' or 'false'
IPAddress – IP Address for NIC
SubnetMask – Subnet Mask for NIC
Gateway – Gateway for NIC
pDNS – Primary DNS (Windows Only)
sDNS – Secondary NIC (Windows Only)
Notes – Description applied to the vCenter Notes field on VM
CREDITS
Handling New-VM Async – LucD – @LucD22
http://www.lucd.info/2010/02/21/about-async-tasks-the-get-task-cmdlet-and-a-hash-table/
USE AT YOUR OWN RISK!
.LINK
http://blog.smasterson.com/2014/05/21/deploying-multiple-vms-via-powercli-updated-v1-2/
#>
#requires Version 3
#——————————————————————–
# Parameters
param (
[parameter(Mandatory=$false)]
[string]$csvfile,
[parameter(Mandatory=$false)]
[string]$vcenter,
[parameter(Mandatory=$false)]
[switch]$auto,
[parameter(Mandatory=$false)]
[switch]$createcsv
)
#——————————————————————–
# User Defined Variables
#——————————————————————–
# Static Variables
$scriptName = "DeployVM"
$scriptVer = "1.2.1"
$scriptDir = Split-Path Path $MyInvocation.MyCommand.Definition Parent
$starttime = Get-Date uformat "%m-%d-%Y %I:%M:%S"
$logDir = $scriptDir + "\Logs\"
$logfile = $logDir + $scriptName + "_" + (Get-Date uformat %m-%d-%Y_%I-%M-%S) + "_" + $env:username + ".txt"
$deployedDir = $scriptDir + "\Deployed\"
$deployedFile = $deployedDir + "DeployVM_" + (Get-Date uformat %m-%d-%Y_%I-%M-%S) + "_" + $env:username + ".csv"
$exportpath = $scriptDir + "\DeployVM.csv"
$headers = "" | Select-Object Name, Boot, OSType, Template, CustSpec, Folder, ResourcePool, CPU, RAM, Disk2, Disk3, Disk4, Datastore, DiskStorageFormat, NetType, Network, DHCP, IPAddress, SubnetMask, Gateway, pDNS, sDNS, Notes
$taskTab = @{}
#——————————————————————–
# Load Snap-ins
# Add VMware snap-in if required
If ((Get-PSSnapin Name VMware.VimAutomation.Core ErrorAction SilentlyContinue) -eq $null) {add-pssnapin VMware.VimAutomation.Core}
#——————————————————————–
# Functions
Function Out-Log {
Param(
[Parameter(Mandatory=$true)][string]$LineValue,
[Parameter(Mandatory=$false)][string]$fcolor = "White"
)
Add-Content Path $logfile Value $LineValue
Write-Host $LineValue ForegroundColor $fcolor
}
Function Read-OpenFileDialog([string]$WindowTitle, [string]$InitialDirectory, [string]$Filter = "All files (*.*)|*.*", [switch]$AllowMultiSelect)
{
Add-Type AssemblyName System.Windows.Forms
$openFileDialog = New-Object System.Windows.Forms.OpenFileDialog
$openFileDialog.Title = $WindowTitle
if (![string]::IsNullOrWhiteSpace($InitialDirectory)) { $openFileDialog.InitialDirectory = $InitialDirectory }
$openFileDialog.Filter = $Filter
if ($AllowMultiSelect) { $openFileDialog.MultiSelect = $true }
$openFileDialog.ShowHelp = $true # Without this line the ShowDialog() function may hang depending on system configuration and running from console vs. ISE.
$openFileDialog.ShowDialog() > $null
if ($AllowMultiSelect) { return $openFileDialog.Filenames } else { return $openFileDialog.Filename }
}
#——————————————————————–
# Main Procedures
# Start Logging
Clear-Host
If (!(Test-Path $logDir)) {New-Item ItemType directory Path $logDir | Out-Null}
Out-Log "**************************************************************************************"
Out-Log "$scriptName`tVer:$scriptVer`t`t`t`tStart Time:`t$starttime"
Out-Log "**************************************************************************************`n"
# If requested, create DeployVM.csv and exit
If ($createcsv) {
If (Test-Path $exportpath) {
Out-Log "`n$exportpath Already Exists!`n" "Red"
Exit
} Else {
Out-Log "`nCreating $exportpath`n" "Yellow"
$headers | Export-Csv $exportpath NoTypeInformation
Out-Log "Done!`n"
Exit
}
}
# Ensure PowerCLI is at least version 5.5 R2 (Build 1649237)
If ((Get-PowerCLIVersion).Build -lt 1649237) {
Out-Log "Error: DeployVM script requires PowerCLI version 5.5 R2 (Build 1649237) or later" "Red"
Out-Log "PowerCLI Version Detected: $((Get-PowerCLIVersion).UserFriendlyVersion)" "Red"
Out-Log "Exiting…`n`n" "Red"
Exit
}
# Test to ensure csv file is available
If ($csvfile -eq "" -or !(Test-Path $csvfile) -or !$csvfile.EndsWith("DeployVM.csv")) {
Out-Log "Path to DeployVM.csv not specified…prompting`n" "Yellow"
$csvfile = Read-OpenFileDialog "Locate DeployVM.csv" "C:\" "DeployVM.csv|DeployVM.csv"
}
If ($csvfile -eq "" -or !(Test-Path $csvfile) -or !$csvfile.EndsWith("DeployVM.csv")) {
Out-Log "`nStill can't find it…I give up" "Red"
Out-Log "Exiting…" "Red"
Exit
}
Out-Log "Using $csvfile`n" "Yellow"
# Make copy of DeployVM.csv
If (!(Test-Path $deployedDir)) {New-Item ItemType directory Path $deployedDir | Out-Null}
Copy-Item $csvfile Destination $deployedFile | Out-Null
# Import VMs from csv
$newVMs = Import-Csv $csvfile
$newVMs = $newVMs | Where {$_.Name -ne ""}
[INT]$totalVMs = @($newVMs).count
Out-Log "New VMs to create: $totalVMs" "Yellow"
# Check to ensure csv is populated
If ($totalVMs -lt 1) {
Out-Log "`nError: No entries found in DeployVM.csv" "Red"
Out-Log "Exiting…`n" "Red"
Exit
}
# Show input and ask for confirmation, unless -auto was used
If (!$auto) {
$newVMs | Out-GridView Title "VMs to be Created"
$continue = Read-Host "`nContinue (y/n)?"
If ($continue -notmatch "y") {
Out-Log "Exiting…" "Red"
Exit
}
}
# Connect to vCenter server
If ($vcenter -eq "") {$vcenter = Read-Host "`nEnter vCenter server FQDN or IP"}
Try {
Out-Log "`nConnecting to vCenter – $vcenter`n`n" "Yellow"
Connect-VIServer $vcenter EA Stop | Out-Null
} Catch {
Out-Log "`r`n`r`nUnable to connect to $vcenter" "Red"
Out-Log "Exiting…`r`n`r`n" "Red"
Exit
}
# Start provisioning VMs
$v = 0
Out-Log "Deploying VMs`n" "Yellow"
Foreach ($VM in $newVMs) {
$Error.Clear()
$vmName = $VM.Name
$v++
$vmStatus = "[{0} of {1}] {2}" -f $v, $totalVMs, $vmName
Write-Progress Activity "Deploying VMs" Status $vmStatus PercentComplete (100*($v/$totalVMs))
# Create custom OS Custumization spec
If ($vm.DHCP -match "true") {
$spec = Get-OSCustomizationSpec Name $VM.CustSpec
$tempSpec = $spec | New-OSCustomizationSpec Name temp$vmName
$tempSpec | Get-OSCustomizationNicMapping | Set-OSCustomizationNicMapping `
IpMode UseDhcp | Out-Null
} Else {
If ($VM.OSType -eq "Windows") {
$spec = Get-OSCustomizationSpec Name $VM.CustSpec
$tempSpec = $spec | New-OSCustomizationSpec Name temp$vmName
$tempSpec | Get-OSCustomizationNicMapping | Set-OSCustomizationNicMapping `
IpMode UseStaticIP IpAddress $VM.IPAddress SubnetMask $VM.SubnetMask `
Dns $VM.pDNS,$VM.sDNS DefaultGateway $VM.Gateway | Out-Null
} ElseIF ($VM.OSType -eq "Linux") {
$spec = Get-OSCustomizationSpec Name $VM.CustSpec
$tempSpec = $spec | New-OSCustomizationSpec Name temp$vmName
$tempSpec | Get-OSCustomizationNicMapping | Set-OSCustomizationNicMapping `
IpMode UseStaticIP IpAddress $VM.IPAddress SubnetMask $VM.SubnetMask `
DefaultGateway $VM.Gateway | Out-Null
}
}
# Create VM
Out-Log "Deploying $vmName"
$taskTab[(New-VM Name $VM.Name ResourcePool $VM.ResourcePool Location $VM.Folder Datastore $VM.Datastore DiskStorageFormat $VM.DiskStorageFormat `
Notes $VM.Notes Template $VM.Template OSCustomizationSpec temp$vmName RunAsync EA SilentlyContinue).Id] = $VM.Name
# Remove temp OS Custumization spec
Remove-OSCustomizationSpec OSCustomizationSpec temp$vmName Confirm:$false
# Log errors
If ($Error.Count -ne 0) {
If ($Error.Count -eq 1 -and $Error.Exception -match "'Location' expects a single value") {
$vmLocation = $VM.Folder
Out-Log "Unable to place $vmName in desired location, multiple $vmLocation folders exist, check root folder" "Red"
} Else {
Out-Log "`n$vmName failed to deploy!" "Red"
Foreach ($err in $Error) {
Out-Log "$err" "Red"
}
$failDeploy += @($vmName)
}
}
}
Out-Log "`n`nAll Deployment Tasks Created" "Yellow"
Out-Log "`n`nMonitoring Task Processing" "Yellow"
# When finsihed deploying, reconfigure new VMs
$totalTasks = $taskTab.Count
$runningTasks = $totalTasks
while($runningTasks -gt 0){
$vmStatus = "[{0} of {1}] {2}" -f $runningTasks, $totalTasks, "Tasks Remaining"
Write-Progress Activity "Monitoring Task Processing" Status $vmStatus PercentComplete (100*($totalTasks$runningTasks)/$totalTasks)
Get-Task | % {
if($taskTab.ContainsKey($_.Id) -and $_.State -eq "Success"){
#Deployment completed
$Error.Clear()
$vmName = $taskTab[$_.Id]
Out-Log "`n`nReconfiguring $vmName" "Yellow"
$VM = Get-VM $vmName
$VMconfig = $newVMs | Where {$_.Name -eq $vmName}
# Set CPU and RAM
Out-Log "Setting vCPU(s) and RAM on $vmName" "Yellow"
$VM | Set-VM NumCpu $VMconfig.CPU MemoryGB $VMconfig.RAM Confirm:$false | Out-Null
# Set port group on virtual adapter
Out-Log "Setting Port Group on $vmName" "Yellow"
If ($VMconfig.NetType -match "vSS") {
$network = @{
'NetworkName' = $VMconfig.network
'Confirm' = $false
}
} Else {
$network = @{
'Portgroup' = $VMconfig.network
'Confirm' = $false
}
}
$VM | Get-NetworkAdapter | Set-NetworkAdapter @network | Out-Null
# Add additional disks if needed
If ($VMConfig.Disk2 -gt 1) {
Out-Log "Adding additional disk on $vmName – don't forget to format within the OS" "Yellow"
$VM | New-HardDisk CapacityGB $VMConfig.Disk2 StorageFormat $VMConfig.DiskStorageFormat Persistence persistent | Out-Null
}
If ($VMConfig.Disk3 -gt 1) {
Out-Log "Adding additional disk on $vmName – don't forget to format within the OS" "Yellow"
$VM | New-HardDisk CapacityGB $VMConfig.Disk3 StorageFormat $VMConfig.DiskStorageFormat Persistence persistent | Out-Null
}
If ($VMConfig.Disk4 -gt 1) {
Out-Log "Adding additional disk on $vmName – don't forget to format within the OS" "Yellow"
$VM | New-HardDisk CapacityGB $VMConfig.Disk4 StorageFormat $VMConfig.DiskStorageFormat Persistence persistent | Out-Null
}
# Boot VM
If ($VMconfig.Boot -match "true") {
Out-Log "Booting $vmName" "Yellow"
$VM | Start-VM EA SilentlyContinue | Out-Null
}
$taskTab.Remove($_.Id)
$runningTasks
If ($Error.Count -ne 0) {
Out-Log "$vmName completed with errors" "Red"
Foreach ($err in $Error) {
Out-Log "$Err" "Red"
}
$failReconfig += @($vmName)
} Else {
Out-Log "$vmName is Complete" "Green"
$successVMs += @($vmName)
}
}
elseif($taskTab.ContainsKey($_.Id) -and $_.State -eq "Error"){
# Deployment failed
$failed = $taskTab[$_.Id]
Out-Log "`n$failed failed to deploy!`n" "Red"
$taskTab.Remove($_.Id)
$runningTasks
$failDeploy += @($failed)
}
}
Start-Sleep Seconds 10
}
#——————————————————————–
# Close Connections
Disconnect-VIServer Server $vcenter Force Confirm:$false
#——————————————————————–
# Outputs
Out-Log "`n**************************************************************************************"
Out-Log "Processing Complete" "Yellow"
If ($successVMs -ne $null) {
Out-Log "`nThe following VMs were successfully created:" "Yellow"
Foreach ($success in $successVMs) {Out-Log "$success" "Green"}
}
If ($failReconfig -ne $null) {
Out-Log "`nThe following VMs failed to reconfigure properly:" "Yellow"
Foreach ($reconfig in $failReconfig) {Out-Log "$reconfig" "Red"}
}
If ($failDeploy -ne $null) {
Out-Log "`nThe following VMs failed to deploy:" "Yellow"
Foreach ($deploy in $failDeploy) {Out-Log "$deploy" "Red"}
}
$finishtime = Get-Date uformat "%m-%d-%Y %I:%M:%S"
Out-Log "`n`n"
Out-Log "**************************************************************************************"
Out-Log "$scriptName`t`t`t`t`tFinish Time:`t$finishtime"
Out-Log "**************************************************************************************"

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DeployVM.ps1
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DeployVM Console

DeployVM Console

6 thoughts on “Deploying multiple VMs via PowerCLI

    1. smasterson Post author

      Hello, If you could provide any errors thrown I may be able to track down what you issues may be seeing. Feel free to email me directly if you wish (smasterson (at) gmail)

      Reply
  1. Secret admirer

    Hi SMasterson,

    Could you please help me in resolving my issue. I can’t see the location of logs for failreconfig and faildeploy. I would like the cleanup the logs everytime i run the script to refresh for a new one. In the logs, it always add the new value like below.

    Processing Complete

    The following VMs were successfully created:
    Test1

    The following VMs failed to reconfigure properly:
    Test1
    Test2

    The following VMs failed to deploy:
    Test1
    Test2
    Test1
    Test2

    Reply
    1. smasterson Post author

      Hello

      First – please be sure you are using the latest version, found here.

      A new log should be created each time the script is run (there is only one log per run).

      If your issues are not present in the log, you can check the vSphere tasks or powershell console for additional info.

      Reply

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